Pain on the outside or front of the shin can be Compartment Syndrome, periostitis, muscle strain or nerve related.
Stress fractures are common along the front and inside of the shin.
Pain on the inside of the shin is mostly caused by the three muscles that attach here and control the foot and toes being over worked. Tibialis posterior is the most common.
‘Shin splints’ are a common complaint. This is not where your shin splinters, although it can feel like it. It is the generic name for any pain in the shin, usually due to running.