As well as sending information and instructions from your body to your brain and back again, your nerves can also cause your pain just like muscles, ligaments, tendons and bones can.
Nerves actually have their own nerves within them, Clever! Messages get sent to the brain telling it when there is a problem in the nerve and therefore you can feel pain. The nerve can become inflamed from excessive stretch or compression or from a chemical irritation. Causes of this can be related to posture and/or swelling of other things such as joints and discs and ligaments. Sometimes the original irritation that sensitized the nerve can settle but the nerve stays sensitized for other reasons and you therefore still experience pain. Other things that can cause the nerve to continue to be painful are scarring in the nerve, changes to the way the nerve sends messages and an over response of the nerve to every day activities.
Common nerve pains include sciatica, carpal tunnel syndrome and neck radiculopathy (nerve irritation in the arm from the neck joints).
That said, nerves are tough little fellas and have lots of potential to get better and start behaving themselves again. However they can take some time to fully settle down.